Zeolite as Fe Reduction in Groundwater

Clean water is an important part or main component of life that supports economic, consumption, health, and other aspects. however the development of human civilization, the more environmental problems one of which is water pollution contaminated by Ferrum (Fe). Usually, water containing Ferrum (Fe) will turn yellow-brown after some time in contact with air and have a bad smell’nt. Water contaminated by Ferrum (Fe). if it exceeds the maximum limit for consumption, it is very dangerous for the body because it can cause various kinds of diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, both Alzheimer’s, and epilepsy.

Epilepsy is a disease that attacks the part of the central nervous system or brain where the condition causes a person to experience seizures. Usually, this disease attacks children which has a long-term impact on the child’s growth and development, but it does not rule out adults also have the potential to suffer from this disease. While Alzheimer’s disease is located in the part of the brain that results in decreased ability to think, decreased memory, decreased ability to speak, and behavioral changes, such as when people are 56 years of age and over.

In general, the filtration process using zeolites can reduce Ferrum (Fe) levels in the water, because natural zeolites are a type of mineral or compound composed of hydrated silica (SiO2) with the cations sodium (Na), potassium (K), and barium (Ba), whereas zeolite synthetic usually contains potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) compounds. so that zeolites have unique properties such as filtering or separating molecules based on the size and configuration of the molecule, easy to modify, reusable, and non-toxic, so it is very good to be used as an adsorbent as well as a natural exchange material.

Adsorption is the process of adsorption of one substance by another substance that occurs on the surface. In the adsorption process, there will be a physicochemical mechanism in the form of a process of separating components from a fluid phase or Fe2 ions in the air and moving to the surface of the solid as an absorbent (zeolite).

Decrease water salinity using Natural zeolite

Water used for drinking. water can come from groundwater, river water, lake water, or swamp water. Natural disturbances and environmental pollution have caused the amount and quality of surface water reserves to decrease. Water from various natural sources, especially those that have been polluted, needs to be treated before it can be used as raw material for drinking water. The problem of water turbidity can be eliminated by deposition, either by means of gravity, filtering, or addition of alum Al2 (SO4) 3.

Through sedimentation and filtering, cloudy water is converted into clear water. Pathogenic microorganisms that may be present in water can be killed by the addition of chlorine. However, the problem of odor and the content of several types of dissolved salts, which are undesirable and which can reduce the quality of raw materials for drinking water, has yet to be resolved. The presence of several types of salt in water can come from soil minerals/rocks dissolved in water or seawater intrusion to land.

According to previous research results, activated natural zeolite can be used as an adsorbent to absorb several types of ions and absorb carotene dyes. It has been successful in activating natural zeolite and used as an adsorbent to reduce the smell of ammonia in water. The acidity level (pH) and the color of industrial wastewater can be reduced through waste treatment with activated natural zeolite adsorbent. Water treatment using zeolite adsorbent can also significantly reduce levels of Fe and Mn ions in water.

The activated natural zeolite was tested to reduce the salt content in the water. As a model of water containing salt, in this study, the NaCl solution model, with a concentration of 0.1 molars, was used, either separately for each type of solution or in a mixture of the three types of solutions.

The experiment was carried out by means of direct mixing and flow in the column. Apart from the salt solution model, the actual ground and surface water samples were also used at other experimental stages. By using the salt solution model and through direct mixing, into 20 ml of NaCl solution, 2 g of activated dry zeolite powder was added, stirred for 2 hours, and filtered to separate the zeolite from the solution.

Natural zeolite that is not activated and is only dried at 110o C can reduce the salt content by 4%. Inactivated natural zeolite calcination can increase the decrease in salt content, this is the better if the zeolite powder is added to the saline solution which has been calcined at high temperature.

Benefits of Zeolite for Shrimp Pond

Zeolit benefit for shrimp pond

Shrimp ponds are businesses in the fishery sector that involve ponds containing freshwater, saltwater, and brackish water. Shrimp is one type of filter animal so that water quality is crucial for the results obtained by farmers. Potential shrimps to be cultivated in ponds are tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Both are able to tolerate salt levels between 0 to 45 percent.


Zeolites are natural minerals made from aluminum silicate groups that are hydrated by alkali metals and alkaline earth. The zeolite mineral is gray to bluish. Clinoptilolite is a type of natural zeolite mineral that has many uses.


In aquaculture, Clinoptilolite can be used to help control the quality of the soil at the bottom of a pond. Clinoptilolite forms like crystal and has a variety of colors, namely white, yellow, pink, and pale brown.


In this article, Nusagri discusses the benefits of zeolite for shrimp ponds. Nusagri has also published related articles,  Zeolite as ammonia adsorber in pond. Please refer to the article.

Pond water quality is an important thing that must always be considered. According to research, if environmental conditions such as water quality are not in accordance with the standards for cultivation it will cause death and ultimately losses in aquaculture. Water quality management is a way to maintain water quality parameters in accordance with quality standards for cultivation. These parameters are an indicator to see the quality of water, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), free carbon dioxide (CO2), pH, temperature, brightness, salinity, ammonia, and nitrite.

Zeolit benefit for shrimp pond

Dissolved oxygen should be sufficient. Scientists generally agree that aquatic animals need dissolved oxygen at a concentration of 5.0 mg / L or more to be able to live and develop. However, the amount of oxygen needed can also vary depending on how large or complex the animal is and where it lives. The greater the dissolved oxygen value, the better the water quality. The highest difference in dissolved oxygen concentration is found in waters that have high plankton density and vice versa. Most of the waters that have low oxygen levels are caused by a variety of complex factors from natural to man-made factors. The solubility of oxygen in water is influenced by several factors including temperature, salinity of the waters, movement of water on the surface of the water, the surface area of open waters, atmospheric pressure, and the percentage of oxygen around it.


When the concentration of dissolved oxygen is low, carbon dioxide levels can inhibit the entry of oxygen into pond water. The normal range of carbon dioxide is from 1 to 10 mg / l. If carbon dioxide exceeds 10 mg / l, the water quality is not good.


Too high pH is not good, a pH above 8.5 causes ammonia in the pond to be toxic and raises hydrogen sulfide around it which is also a toxic substance, so don’t overdo it.


Temperature or temperature is one indicator of the success of shrimp farming. For this reason, temperature fluctuations must always be watched out for by farmers, because sudden spikes or decreases in temperature can inhibit shrimp growth and can even make shrimp die.

It should be noted by farmers that the optimal temperature for shrimp to grow and develop is in the range of 26 to 30 degrees celsius. As for the drastic temperature change that can be overcome by shrimp is no more than 2 degrees celsius. If the pond temperature decreases until it reaches 25 degrees Celsius, it can cause the digestibility of food by shrimp will be hampered, this will later influence the growth of shrimp. Vice versa, if there is a surge in temperature to reach 30 degrees Celsius or more, it will trigger stress on shrimp. The stress experienced is due to high-temperature changes that cause shrimp oxygen demand to increase.


To avoid stress on shrimp, pond entrepreneurs are required to always check the level of water salinity routinely. In general, the ideal shrimp ponds are shrimp ponds that have a salinity level of around 10-30 ppt.


Zeolite is useful for conditioning pond water quality to conform to shrimp pond standards. Various benefits of zeolite minerals for ponds, namely:


• Because it has a high absorption power, zeolite minerals can reduce gases in the remaining shrimp feed (not eaten), as well as gases originating from the metabolism of other organisms that live at the pond bottom.

• Zeolite minerals are able to bind heavy metals in water or pond bottom soils that can threaten the survival of fish/shrimp, such as Pb, Fe, Hg, Sn, Bi, and AS.

• Because zeolites have a high calcium content, shrimp in ponds can be prevented from soft skin diseases.

• Maintaining the stability of the water temperature, as well as maintaining the degree of acidity (pH) of water in a pond.

• Increase the level of dissolved oxygen in the water

• Helps the growth of phytoplankton in ponds, so that natural food for shrimp is always maintained.

Zeolite as Ammonia Absorber in Pond

Ammonia reduced from pond

Ponds are part of extensive aquaculture. The pond is one type of habitat that is used as a place for brackish water aquaculture activities located in coastal areas. In general, ponds are usually directly related to the maintenance of tiger prawns, although actually there are still many species that can be cultivated in ponds such as milkfish, tilapia, grouper, white snapper and so on.

However, a problem that is often encountered in pond aquaculture activities is the concentration of ammonia which has a bad effect on animals on the pond. Ammonia will be toxic to fish if allowed to accumulate in large quantities in ponds. When ammonia accumulates to toxic levels, fish cannot extract energy from feed efficiently so that eventually the fish will become lethargic, sick, and die.

Ammonia in water exists in the form of NH3 molecules and in the form of ammonia ions in the form of NH4 +. Both forms of ammonia are very dependent on pH conditions and water temperature. If the balance is changed, such as the pH value in one of the descending parts will bring about the addition of ammonia molecules. The balance between NH3 and NH4 + is also influenced by temperature. Under certain pH conditions, toxic ammonia will appear in warm water compared to cold water. In addition, the level of toxins from ammonia is also influenced by the oxygen content in the water.

Measurement of ammonia concentration will give a glimpse of the conditions at the time the water sample is taken. But measurement at all is ineffective because the relationship between these processes is very complex because the rate of change varies throughout the year and results in a measurement pattern.

Nitrogen compounds usually come from the atmosphere, water supply, food scraps, dead organisms and from the metabolism of aquatic animals. The amount of nitrogen gas or nitrogen oxides coming from the atmosphere is generally very small. Therefore pond water pollution by nitrogen originating from the atmosphere is very unlikely. Pollution of aquaculture water by nitrogen compounds is generally caused by nitrogen compounds derived from the remnants of fertilization, dirt and other substances contained in water sources. According to research, the main source of nitrogen compounds in aquaculture is the result of aquatic animal metabolism.

Reduce ammonia from fish pond

The main source of ammonia in ponds is fish excretion. Fish will break down the protein in the feed and excrete it through the gills and feces. The amount of ammonia that is excreted by fish depends on the input of feed given in the culture system, the addition of such as the addition of feeding rate. Ammonia enters the pond also from the decomposition of organic material such as leftover food or algae and other dead aquatic plants carried out by microbes and fungi.

The danger or not the level of ammonia poison can vary depending on the type of fish because some more can survive. In addition, other factors such as water temperature and chemical factors play an important role. For example, ammonia (NH3) constantly changes to ammonium (NH4 +), and vice versa. The amount of each relative depends on the temperature and pH of the water. Ammonia is very poisonous, while ammonium is relatively harmless.

Ammonia control is a rather complicated problem in fish farming. Medications carried out in a situation can be toxic to fish life. Fish are very sensitive to sudden changes that occur in water. Eliminating ammonia must be done without dramatically changing the pH and it is best done without using harsh chemical additives. The use of zeolites is one of the safest ways to control ammonia levels in ponds.

Physical and chemical ion exchange is considered to be the foremost and effective way to control ammonia. The use of Zeolite and Clinoptilolite has been used successfully as an ion exchange medium to remove ammonia. Cations in the pore help neutralize the zeolite load. These cations can move freely so they can easily exchange ions. The mechanism of cation exchange is largely determined by the size, charge, and type of zeolite. Natural zeolites consist of Aluminum Silicate, capable of adsorbing and exchanging gases, whereas clinoptilolite are a kind of zeolite in which ammonia gas is adsorbed and ammonia ions are exchanged. Clinoptolites are more beneficial when compared to artificial zeolites.

Descriptions are also influential in capturing ammonia in ponds. Zeolites have a high capacity for adsorbing. The adsorption mechanism that occurs includes physical adsorption (Van der Walls force) and chemical adsorption (electrostatic forces). The absorption capacity of zeolite depends on the number of pores and surface area. Only molecules smaller than the zeolite pore can be adsorbed.

Thank you for reading the article about controlling ammonia levels in ponds. The conclusion that can be obtained from this article is that zeolite is one method that can be used to safely control ammonia in a pond based on its porous nature and is able to exchange ammonia ions. Check out the article about zeolite on the Nusagri.co.id website. Nusagri also provides natural zeolites that are ready to be exported. For more information, please check the Nusagri website’s main page or contact the contact listed.

Effect of Zeolite in Water and Fish Quality

Fish farming may sound really straightforward. During this time, ranchers consistently designate capital for nourishment and seed needs. In any case, for reasons unknown, the impact of the fish condition is likewise enormous on the development of freshwater fish. The lake must be cleaned consistently to give an agreeable situation to angle. This likewise applies to shrimp lakes. Some fish and shrimp can’t make due in a grimy lake condition. Deductively, the filthy condition (not useful for fish and shrimp lakes) has a low oxygen content, a pH that isn’t nonpartisan and contains toxins that can harm fish and shrimp.

This is an issue for some ranchers. They can’t perfect their lake all in all since cleaning the lake requires quite a while. So Alkali in the lake will keep on expanding. Smelling salts will cause changes in lake pH. Smelling salts are delivered from fish droppings, nourishment scraps, dead creatures, and rotting dead plants in lakes. Smelling salts in lakes is normally accessible as NH3 and NH4 +. An NH3 structure is a harmful type of alkali, while NH4 + incorporates non-poisonous particles. Alkali will cause substance consumption in fish tissue, including wounds to the gills. At the point when smelling salts assaults the gills, the fish will likewise assimilate it into the body. This is the thing that will make harm the body of the fish. Fish will encounter a few manifestations of harm. Fish presented to alkali will normally make sporadic jolting developments, yet can likewise show lazy conduct and remain submerged.

Farmers need quick and viable approaches to keep up great water quality for their lakes. The example of fish and shrimp lakes development changed after the nearness of zeolite minerals. Zeolite is minerals produced using aluminum silicate bunches that are hydrated by alkaline metals and alkali earth.

From numerous minerals and stones, zeolite is one component that valuable in water treatment. Trademark zeolites are normally and monetarily satisfactory hydrated aluminosilicate materials with astounding molecule exchange and sorption properties. Their feasibility in different imaginative methodology depends upon their physical-substance properties that are immovably connected with their geological stores. The exceptional three-dimensional penetrable structure gives ordinary zeolites distinctive application possibilities. Due to the excess of the negative charge outwardly of zeolite, which results from the isomorphic replacement of silicon by aluminum in the fundamental helper units, trademark zeolites have a spot with the social event of cationic exchangers.

The common assimilation and adsorption abilities of zeolite make it the ideal contender to advance the continuous wellbeing and manageability of aquaculture frameworks. In these situations, zeolite serves three essential capacities: to expel poisonous degrees of nitrogen and ammonium particles from incubation facility, transport, and aquarium waters; to give oxygen-improved air to rearing and transportation; to decontaminate feedlot and incubator waters (Mumpton 1985 and 1999). 

In shut aquaculture frameworks, ammonium particles delivered by rotting fertilizer and unused nourishment are the main source of gill harm, hyperplasia, sterility, hindered development, and mortality in fish (Mumpton, 1985). Tests led in incubation facilities show that zeolite’s particle trade properties control nitrogen content and can give an option to bio-filtration for ammonium expulsion (Mumpton, 1985 and 1999). 


Hargreaves (1998) revealed that planned feeds, fish fecal matter, and silt transition add to nitrogen levels in lakes; when levels surpass lakes’ assimilatory limit, water quality decays in view of a collection of nitrogenous mixes, similar to alkali. Bergero et al. (1994) inspected how various types of zeolites can be utilized to improve the nature of aquaculture water. The specialists found that smelling salts have an extraordinary liking for clinoptilolite dependent on its crystalline structure. During the investigation, specialists estimated the convergences of smelling salts in waters gathered from a recycling framework. Discoveries recommend that clinoptilolite and phillipsite zeolite were best in smelling salts evacuation due to ion trade limits (Bergero et al., 1994). As an extra advantage, lower temperatures didn’t impact the particle trade limit of a zeolite remembered for the investigation. 


Specialists have likewise discovered that the expulsion of nitrogen content through adsorption produces oxygen-enhanced air that can be utilized to circulate air through fish rearing tanks and transportation tanks; fish housed and brought up in such situations are livelier and have more prominent hunger (Mumpton, 1985 and 1999). The nature of water in recycling frameworks can be likewise improved by utilizing zeolite enhanced nourishment along. Mumpton (1985) found that adding 2 percent zeolite to the customary eating routine of rainbow trout over a 64-day time frame brought about a 10 percent biomass increment with no announced wellbeing suggestions to the fish.



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