Zeolites to Reduce Water Hardness

Water is a very important need for human life, therefore if the water needs have not been met both in quantity and quality, it will have a major impact on people’s social and economic life. In terms of utilization, water use can be categorized in 2 categories, namely household water and industrial water, each of which has certain requirements. These requirements include physical, chemical and bacteriological requirements, all three requirements constitute a unity, so that if there is one parameter that does not meet the requirements, the water is not suitable for use. One of the chemical parameters in the water quality requirements is the amount of the elemental content of Ca2 + and Mg2 + in water, which is commonly referred to as water hardness. Hardness in water is highly undesirable both for household use and for industrial use. For household water a high level of hardness results in more soap consumption because soap becomes less effective due to one part of the soap molecule being bound by the Ca / Mg element.

For industrial water the element Ca can cause scale on the walls of the heating system equipment so that it can cause damage to industrial equipment, besides that it can inhibit the heating process. This problem can result in a decline in industry performance which can ultimately result in losses. Therefore, hardness requirements in industrial water are highly considered. In general, the amount of hardness in industrial water must be zero, meaning that the elements Ca and Mg are completely eliminated. Based on this fact it is necessary to conduct a technological assessment to reduce or even eliminate hardness in water. So that this technology can be applied to small industries or home industries, the system chosen is the ion exchange system, which is a fairly simple system, and besides that the ion exchange material used is a relatively inexpensive material, zeolite, so as a whole from a technical perspective and the economy can be reached by small industry and home industries.

Zeolites are derived from alumino silicate minerals that are dehydrated with alkali and alkaline earth cations, having structures in three dimensions that are not limited to cavities. The ratio of silica and aluminum varies, resulting in many types of zeolite minerals found in nature. Zeolite is a rather soft crystal with a specific gravity that varies between 2 – 24 gr / cm3. The crystal water is easily released by heating, when exposed to air it will quickly return to its original state because it is easy to absorb water from the air. It is easy to exchange alkaline ions with other elemental ions.

 Based on the source, zeolite is divided into two, first is zeolite originating from nature hereinafter referred to as natural zeolite, second is artificial zeolite namely zeolite made by humans. Natural zeolite is found in the form of sedimentation that occurs due to the alteration of volcanic dust by water. In fact zeolite sedimentation continues on an ocean floor. From marine studies it is known that Philipsit zeolite is the most mineral in nature. Artificial zeolite is made by imitating the hydrothermal process that occurs in natural zeolite minerals. Artificial zeolite is made from alumino silicate gel, which is a type of gel made from a solution of sodium aluminal, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. The gel structure is formed due to the polymerization of aluminate and silicate anions. The difference in chemical composition and the molecular weight distribution of the solution, will cause differences in the zeolite structure that occurs. At present there are at least 30 types of artificial zeolites, as a result of variations in parameters such as temperature, crystallization and initial gel composition. Indonesia as a volcanic region, has volcanic products, in the form of zeolite minerals which are quite a lot. According to the Directorate of Mineral Resources, no less than 6 known deposit sites and around 40 estimated sediment locations produce zeolite minerals. The six known locations are Nanggung-West Java, Cikotok-West Java, Naggreg-West Java, Pacitan-East Java, Sidomulyo-East Java, Cikembar-West Java.

Hardness is divided into two types of hardness, namely temporary hardness and permanent hardness. Water that contains calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate hardness is called carbonate hardness or temporary hardness, because the hardness can be removed by heating or by lime application. Meanwhile, water containing calcium sulfate hardness, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride, is called permanent hardness because it cannot be removed by heating, but can be done in other ways and one of them is the ion exchange process. Hardness levels in various waters vary, generally groundwater has a high level of hardness, this happens, because ground water comes in contact with limestone in the soil layer through which water passes. Low surface hardness (soft water), non-carbonate hardness in surface water sourced from calcium sulfate found in clay and other deposits.

Hardness is felt as a result, especially in the use of industrial water, because hardness can cause damage to heating devices, therefore the industrial water requirements for parameter hardness values should be zero, so as to guarantee that there will be no scaling on heating devices. Based on this, in industries that use heating devices, it is absolutely necessary to first soften the water used. Of the several softening processes that have been discussed, the softening process with the ion exchange system is the most practical. The advantages of this process include not producing solid waste that can cause other problems, besides that softeners used are not only disposable but can be reused by regeneration. In the case of device design, for the ion exchange system it can be done based on the characteristics of the ionizing agent used. In the process of ion exchange that needs to be considered is the operating time cycle that must be precise, namely the time of change between the softening, washing and backwashing / regeneration processes. If this time cycle is carried out appropriately and regularly, the treated water produced will be as planned. Through this experiment the time exchanger ion, which in this case zeolite, has reached its saturation point, can be estimated at the time for washing and regeneration.

Natural Zeolite in Water Treatment

Waters are the most important thing in our life. We can’t live without water. The living creature should depend on water. Water used to drink, wash, industries, agriculture, etc. Unfortunately, not all water sources are clean to be used. Sometimes water contains contaminants that are so dangerous. We can’t use the water if there are toxic material and heavy metals inside it. Therefore, efforts to clean water continue to grow. Contaminated water could be used after filtering processes. Water filters use stones and minerals to filter and absorb water contaminants. Filtered water can be used for many possibilities.

From many minerals and stones, zeolite is one element that useful in water treatment. Characteristic zeolites are naturally and financially adequate hydrated aluminosilicate materials with excellent particle trade and sorption properties. Their viability in various innovative procedures relies upon their physical-substance properties that are firmly associated with their topographical stores. The one of a kind three-dimensional permeable structure gives regular zeolites different application prospects. Because of the overabundance of the negative charge on the outside of zeolite, which results from the isomorphic substitution of silicon by aluminum in the essential auxiliary units, characteristic zeolites have a place with the gathering of cationic exchangers.

Various examinations so far have affirmed their astounding exhibition on the expulsion of metal cations from wastewaters. Notwithstanding, zeolites can be artificially altered by inorganic salts or natural surfactants, which are adsorbed on a superficial level and lead to the age of decidedly charged oxi-hydroxides or surfactant micelles, and which empowers the zeolite to tie likewise anions, similar to arsenates or chromates, in steady or less steady edifices. Characteristic zeolites have focal points over other cation trade materials, for example, regularly utilized natural gums, since they are modest, they display brilliant selectivity for various cations at low temperatures, which go with the arrival of non-harmful replaceable cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) to the earth, they are minimal in size and they permit basic and modest support in the full-scale applications. The effectiveness of water treatment by utilizing regular and altered zeolites relies upon the sort and amount of the pre-owned zeolite, the size dispersion of zeolite particles, the underlying grouping of contaminants (cation/anion), pH estimation of the arrangement, ionic quality of the arrangement, temperature, pressure, the contact time of framework zeolite/arrangement and the nearness of other natural mixes and anions. For water treatment with normal zeolites, the standard methodology is utilized, generally a technique in segment or group process.

Particle trade and adsorption properties of normal zeolites in examination with other synthetic and organic procedures have the upside of evacuating polluting influences additionally at moderately low fixations and permits protection of water science if the treatment is done in the section procedure. The subject of further scholastic and modern research ought to be to improve the concoction and physical dependability of adjusted zeolites and to investigate their reactant properties, which would permit their utilization in synergist debasement of natural poisons. Progressively cautious thought of their sublime metal expulsion properties and consciousness of conceivable recovery or further utilization of contaminant/metal-stacked structures can significantly build their natural application prospects, with a center the decrease of high convergences of cations and anions in drinking water and wastewater, for surface, underground and open city water treatment autonomously or in blend with others physical – synthetic techniques.

The utilization of regular zeolites in wastewater treatment is one of the most seasoned and the most point of view zones of their application. The nearness of substantial metals (Zn, Cr, Pb, Compact disc, Cu, Mn, Fe, and so on.) in wastewater is a genuine ecological issue and their expulsion by normal zeolites have been broadly concentrated alongside different advances, including compound precipitation, particle trade, adsorption, layer filtration, coagulation-flocculation, buoyancy, and electrochemical techniques 

The relevance of characteristic zeolites for the concurrent expulsion of smelling salts and humic corrosive, two of the most experienced ebb and flow contaminants, from the surface waters was additionally explored. Their expulsion relies upon pH esteem, introductory centralizations of humic corrosive and smelling salts, temperature, and contact time. The acquired outcomes demonstrated that zeolite indicated the best execution for synchronous expulsion of smelling salts and humic corrosive at the pH near that of normal waters [5]. The utilization of common and changed zeolites has been additionally researched for the concurrent expulsion of Fe and Mn particles from underground water tests. Specifically, Fe and Mn expulsion levels are between 22-90% and 61-100% for normal zeolite – clinoptilolite 

A few ordinary strategies are utilized for the expulsion of contaminations from drinking water, for example, coagulation followed by filtration, layer procedures, and particle trade. Adsorption techniques end up being successful, monetarily productive, simple to perform, and develop. A few analyses were directed to contemplate the proficiency of common zeolite clinoptilolite and of the clinoptilolite-Fe framework in the evacuation of Cu, Mn, Zn, which are all the while found in water tests. A one of a kind property of characteristic zeolites is their selectivity towards cationic. The great consequences of adsorption tests, particularly for the adjusted structures alongside the way that the clinoptilolite–Fe framework is cheap, effectively integrated and recovered, innocuous for individuals, just as for nature, we can consider it as an exceptionally encouraging specific metal adsorbent.

Zeolite as Water Treatment and Control

Zeolite’s benefit is known very versatile, even in agriculture. In agriculture, water is most important component, like water in plants, water in aquarium, and water in aquaculture. Water used everywhere. There are lot of water everywhere. In some sector like aquaculture, water quality should be important.

Water for aquaculture is like air for human. Good air quality means healthy, while if there are lot of pollutant, it means not healthy. Same as air, healthy water support the growth of aquaculture product, even just in aquarium.

There are several ways to maintain the water quality, including water filtering pump. But it will cost so expensive if applied in large scale of aquaculture. Another way is using zeolite stone to clear water. We already discussed about pond water quality before, if you like to check out, go to Good Pond Water Quality with Zeolite.

Water pollution is serious problem. As we can see, many rivers have poor quality. Sometimes in some areas, it is difficult to get clean water during the dry season. This water problem also found in pond, aquarium, and another area that covered by water.

Zeolite can be used as water purification. Water purification process refer to the treatment of removing and filtering impurities particle such as microorganisms, suspended soils or dissolved substances in various type of water.

Zeolite have several characteristics that so helpful for water treatment. Zeolite has internal and external surfaces large enough to be able to produce high ion binding capacity. Zeolite has the ability to absorb various heavy metal cations such as Zinc, Copper, Silver, Lead, Cobalt, and Nickel. Effective in filtering pollutant particles and absorbing clean water. Zeolite belongs to GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe), which is a compound that is safe for humans and animals.

Zeolite have benefit to stabilize ammonia levels when biological filters are used, provides a large surface for the nitrification process by bacteria, able to absorb organic compounds and heavy metals, so water is safe for consumption, stabilize the pH of the water, prevent algal growth that can interfere with fish activity.

Studies found, using zeolite as water filter can make the water cleaner and free of heavy metals.

The conclusion is, zeolite can be used as water treatment and control because of its properties. The properties of zeolite can absorb pollutant from water that contaminate the water. Zeolite can be use in aquarium, fish pond, or even for drinking water.

Thank you for reading this article. If you need zeolite supplier, please contact us. Nusagri have exported natural zeolite overseas. High quality zeolite from Nusagri can improve your plants productivity, clean your water, and keep your animals healthy. There are also many articles in our website. The benefit of zeolite is various. 

Zeolite for Shrimp Aquaculture

Zeolites are minerals that contain hydrated aluminosilicate with alkali and alkaline-earth. Zeolites have so many benefits in many sectors, especially agriculture in general. There are many researchs have found benefit of zeolite in agriculture. They are good for feed additive, soil conditioner, and even for maintaining good quality of water. Anyway, there are so many sectors in Agriculture. But, in this article, we will discuss about how zeolite affect the shrimp aquaculture.

We have already discussed how zeolite effect on aquaculture. There are lot of things that zeolite can do for aquaculture. If you have not read yet, please check our article Benefit of Zeolite in Aquaculture Sector and Good Pond Water Quality with Zeolite. There a lot of information that you need to know about zeolite in aquaculture.

As we know, zeolites have so many benefits because of their properties. There are some unique properties of zeolite, especially their porous structure that able to adsorb water and minerals. With that properties, they have good capability to absorb of harmful material in water. Then, what about using zeolite on shrimp cultivation? 

But, first of all, let’s talk about shrimp. We need to know simply how to grow shrimp. Shrimp cultivation technique is influenced by so many factors like climate, location, availability, cost, transportation, labor, export, import, feed, fertilizer, and proximity to existing market. The condition will affect which technique is needed.

On shrimp cultivation, there are two recommended technique : Closed Recirculating System ( CRS ) and  Integrated Manure Denitrification System.

A closed recirculation system can be used in existing semi-intensive systems and in super-intensive systems. The cultivation of shrimp in closed recirculation systems involves the installation and operation of a recirculation system for the water being used during the grow-out period. The culture water is continuously re-used and treated in order to regenerate a  water quality suitable for the shrimp or fish to grow.

While, integrated manure denitrification system is fed with the concentrated waste flow from shrimp or fish farm system containing dissolved and particulate faecal organic waste, bacterial flocs and inorganic compounds. In the sludge of the bioreactor the faecal particulate carbonaceous waste is digested by the denitrifying bacteria and results in the production of bacterial biomass, reduction of nitrate into nitrogen gas, production carbon dioxide, production of alkalinity, and miniralization and reduction of the sludge. The particulate waste in the sludge bed serves also as media for the denitrifying bacteria to grow. Sludge leaves the bioreactor through a patented filtration unit, and can be discharged from system when needed.

The choise of system depends on the species that is cultured but it may consits out of a hybrid system utilizing a combination of heterotrophic, autotrophic bacterial flocs and clear water supported by probiotics.

Anyway, using zeolite in shrimp cultivation help to generate good water quality for any technique. According to research in 2017, zeolite help to maintain water quality with : (1) removing ammonia from water that will affect the health of shrimp (2) removing heavy metals (still affected by pH , temperature, and contaminants) (3) decrease turbidity (4) improving feed utilization index (5) improve dissolved oxygen in water (6) help the growth of phytoplankton.

So, zeolite can keep the water clean and healthy. Zeolites able to absorb many harmful materials and make a good condition for shrimp to live. Zeolites make a healthy water for shrimp. In shrimp cultivation, healthy water means good for shrimp. Shrimps will grow up in good condition. Using zeolite will increase feed efficiency. It will affect the cost allocated to feed.

Using zeolite on shrimp cultivation could improve the productivity. And, it also cut off cost from feed. Zeolite have many benefit to aquaculture. Not only shrimp, but also fishes. If you’re looking for zeolite ? please have a look at Nusagri website. Nusagri export natural zeolite overseas. There are three type of zeolites : crushed granules, powder, and granular.

Good Water Pond Quality with Zeolite

Fish cultivation might sound pretty simple. During this time, farmers always allocate capital for food and seed needs. However, it turns out that the influence of the fish environment is also large on the growth of freshwater fish. The pond must be cleaned regularly to provide a comfortable environment for fish. This also applies to shrimp ponds. Some fish and shrimp cannot survive in a dirty pond environment. Scientifically, the dirty environment (not good for fish and shrimp ponds) has a low oxygen content, a pH that is not neutral and contains pollutants that can poison fish and shrimp.

This is a problem for many farmers. They are not able to clean their pond as a whole because cleaning the pond requires a long time. So that Ammonia in the pond will continue to increase. Ammonia will cause changes in pond pH. Ammonia is produced from fish droppings, food scraps, dead animals and decaying dead plants in ponds. Ammonia in ponds is usually available in the form of NH3 and NH4 +. An NH3 form is a toxic form of ammonia, while NH4 + includes non-toxic ions. Ammonia will cause chemical burns in fish tissue, including wounds to the gills. When ammonia attacks the gills, the fish will also absorb it into the body. This is what will cause damage to the body of the fish. Fish will experience some symptoms of poisoning. Fish exposed to ammonia will usually make irregular jerking movements, but can also show lethargic behavior and stay underwater.

Farmer need fast and effective ways to maintain good water quality for their ponds. The pattern of fish and shrimp ponds cultivation changed after the presence of zeolite minerals. Zeolite are natural minerals made from aluminum silicate groups that are hydrated by alkali metals and alkaline earth.

Various benefits of zeolite minerals for ponds, namely:

1. Because it has a high absorption power, zeolite minerals can reduce gases in shrimp feed remaining (not eaten), as well as gases originating from the metabolism of other organisms that live at the pond bottom.

2. Zeolite minerals are able to bind heavy metals in water or pond bottom soils that can threaten the survival of fish/shrimp, such as Pb, Fe, Hg, Sn, Bi and AS.

3. Minerals contained in zeolites can restore the lost soil mineral ponds during the operational period of production so that the fertility of the subgrade ponds can be restored.

4. Because zeolites have high calcium content, shrimp in ponds can be prevented from soft skin diseases.

5. Maintaining the stability of the water temperature, as well as maintaining the degree of acidity (pH) of water in a pond.

6. Increase the level of dissolved oxygen in the water.

7. Helps the growth of phytoplankton in ponds, so that natural food for shrimp is always maintained.


The use of zeolite in ponds will improve pond water quality. Healthy pond water will make fish and shrimp grow well. Use zeolite to improve the quality of pond water. Please check the Nusagri website for information about zeolite. You can also purchase zeolite by contacting the contact on the main page.

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