Processing Livestock Waste with Zeolite

Animal husbandry is an important aspect of our lives. Many of the products we consume daily come from animal husbandry, such as meat, eggs, wool, cheese, yogurt, and so on. Therefore, livestock business throughout the world will not be quenched. Farms are managed by farmers by raising livestock to be used as multipurpose products. Some of the most common livestock raised are cows, chickens, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits, and so on. Farming trends also vary by region, depending on what is consumed the most there.

The process of raising livestock in general is to meet the needs of animals such as feed and a comfortable environment. The aim is to make animals more productive. The more productive the livestock, the more profitable the breeder.

The process of raising livestock is also closely related to livestock waste. Livestock waste is all the remaining waste from livestock business activities, either in the form of liquid waste, solid waste, or in the form of gas. Solid waste is all waste in the form of solid or in a solid phase (cattle dung, dead cattle, or entrails from slaughtering herds). Liquid waste is all waste that is in the form of liquid or is in a liquid phase (urine, water washing equipment). Waste gas is all gas in the form of gas or is in the gas phase. The presence of pollutants in the water in an abnormal amount resulted in water being declared polluted. One cow weighing 400-500 kg can produce 27.7-30 kg / day of solid and liquid waste. Among these three types of livestock waste, liquid waste is the most widely produced waste and liquid waste from the livestock business activities is believed to still contain a lot of mineral substances that can be used by microalgae for their growth.

Zeolites are a group of minerals produced from hydrothermal processes in igneous rock. This mineral is usually found to fill gaps or fractures from the rock. In addition, zeolites are also deposits of volcanic activity that contain many silica elements. At present the use of zeolite minerals is increasing, from use in small industries to large scale industries. In developed countries such as the United States, zeolites are truly utilized in industry. Because of the properties possessed by zeolites, these minerals can be utilized in various fields, such as in the industrial sector, namely as materials that can be used to help treat factory waste. The problem of industrial waste is increasingly troubling the community, so many efforts have been made to overcome this waste pollution, either by reducing the volume of wasted waste or by recycling it again.

Zeolites have properties that are capable of exchanging cations, filter of fine-sized objects, absorbent of gas or liquid and as catalyst, can also prevent ammonia poisoning due to the use of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) material, and absorbent organic compounds. Zeolite has a high absorption which is useful as a catcher for various free chemical elements so as not to pollute or poison the environment, animals and humans. Zeolites in the field of animal husbandry used as food additives in chicken, pork and beef rations. Zeolites play a role in preventing and treating diseases of the digestive tract such as diarrhea, increasing body weight, improving feed conversion, reducing the highly pungent odor from impurities and preventing mold fungi during storage.

Zeolite can be used to obtain pure methane gas from waste in the form of rotting waste or waste from a farm. The dry methane gas is then flowed through tubes containing dried zeolite mineral powder, usually used is a type of kabasite or erionite zeolite, into the tube CO2 gas will be absorbed and bound by zeolite so that it will produce pure methane gas.

Utilization of zeolite to process cattle farm waste is by mixing it directly into cow dung. Zeolite will absorb cations and / or anions that cause odors that are in the dirt so it will not be easily separated. Zeolite is also able to agglomerate manure so that it can accelerate the process of ripening cow dung as organic fertilizer.

The types of zeolites suitable for animal husbandry applications are Clinoptilolite, Mordenite, and Khabazit. The three types of zeolites are alkaline zeolites (bases).

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Benefits of Zeolites in Goat Feed

Goat is one of the livestock that has the Latin name capra Aegragus hircus. As is known, goats are livestock that have many advantages. The meat has a fairly high sale value and is valued both at home and abroad. Goat livestock is a type of activity that is beneficial and enjoyable. Business that is clearly producing without speculation. Other benefits of raising goats in addition to cultivation, goats can also be used as food ingredients that have high nutritional value for human life.

Care and maintenance of goats is tricky. But for the location of the village or village to keep goats have a lot of convenience because in the village there is still a lot of vacant land covered with grass as food. Only with 1 year of harvest for livestock, 5 goats consisting of 2 males and females can produce 25 heads. In addition to the fast harvest period, goats are very easy to produce coffers of money. Goats are very easy to sell to agents and markets. Especially if we have goat cattle whose quality is healthy and fat. Buyers will come by themselves.

In addition to making money or investing, goat meat is also a very high nutritious food and very rich in benefits in the life and human body. Of course, by having these animals the intake is easy to get. Another advantage is that goats are animals that are very easy to adapt to the conditions and the environment. So that in a fast time goats can be easily tamed and maintained, and do not need to prepare a special location.


Zeolites are minerals that contain hydrated aluminosilicate with soluble base and antacid earth. Zeolites have such huge numbers of advantages in numerous divisions, particularly horticulture all in all. There are numerous examinations have discovered the advantage of zeolite in farming. Geochemists and mineralogists watch that zeolites are the eventual outcome of established volcanoes into volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks, and variable rocks which in this manner experience enduring because of the impact of warmth and cold with the target that zeolite minerals finally encompassed. These stones are diminished to light blue in concealing. Mineralogists express that zeolites contain more than 30 normal minerals, for instance, Natrolite, Thomsonite, Analytes, Hendalites, Clinoptilotites, and Modernities. 

Zeolite properties have been found by inspects. Accordingly, ponders found that zeolite contained up to 70% of the high extent among silica and aluminum oxides. The examination also found the morphology of the penetrable structure on regular zeolites that prepared to hold and desorb substances. Zeolite moreover has the ability to specific adsorption of immense cations. This is a result of the proximity of the molecule size that described as strong Coloumb collaboration with the structure of the zeolite. Their physicochemical properties essentially depend upon the substance of the zeolitic stage in the stone, for instance, cations exchange structure and nature of corruption. Customary zeolites are penetrable structures, the basic porosity of them is directed by the micropores of pearls, and the helper one – by the transitional pores and macropores. 

Research in different nations shows that giving zeolites gives great weight gain. This might be brought about by particle trade control of the grouping of ammonium particles in the stomach related tract. In any case, a few examinations show a sign of higher protein focuses. The impact of blending zeolite in with creature feed is as per the following. 

1. improve creature development and Weight gain by expanded nourishment change rate efficiencies (less feed required per pound of Weight gain) 

2. A strong liking for ammonium gives unrivaled scent control and a sound situation. Additionally ensures the infiltration of smelling salts into the circulatory system. 

3. Reduction of Scours, acidosis, looseness of the bowels, enteritis and other gastrointestinal illnesses 

4. Improved bone development 

Following quite a while of effective field testing many feed providers and end-clients have remembered zeolite for creature feed added substances (around 2% to 5%) in their feed flexibly program. There is a general improvement in development and wellbeing of these creatures subsequently.

Thank you for reading our article. Keep in touch with Nusagri to get more information about zeolite. is the pioneer in exploitation and processing of zeolite minerals in Indonesia used in Agricultural and multi sectors. Nusagri exported tons of zeolite for many countries including India and Malaysia. Please check our website and social media for further information about zeolite.


Zeolites to Reduce Salmonella in Broilers

Poultry cultivating is one of the agribusiness areas that produce poultry items, for example, eggs and meats. The item is significant in light of the fact that it utilized as cooking material or in any event, for modern material. Many individuals devoured poultry items consistently. Poultry cultivating, raising of winged creatures locally or financially, in a general sense for meat and eggs yet also for plumes. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of basic hugeness, while guinea fowl and squabs (energetic pigeons) are primarily of neighborhood interest. This article treats the principles and practices of poultry developing.

Broiler chicken is the result of red jungle fowl, broiler chicken has tender meat, so it is easy to process but the tender meat is increasingly difficult to prepare so it will be destroyed.

Unlike free-range chickens, broiler chickens are maintained industrially. In the cultivation of broilers kept brooders and puppies. Broiler chickens were first cultivated in Indonesia in the 1950s. But it was popular in the 1980s. At that time many people still did not receive broiler chickens, until in 1981 a government began grinding broilers, this was intended to meet the protein needs of the community.

Broiler chicken farming is now mostly directed to business needs. In large-scale industries, they have provided seeds, feeds, medicines and marketing. This makes it easier for breeders to start raising laying hens from the availability of seeds and other equipment such as feed, medicine to marketing.

Contamination of poultry by nourishment borne pathogens, for example, Salmonella is viewed as one of the serious issues confronting the advancement of the poultry business. As of late, the oven business endured critical financial misfortunes because of an absence of a total checking system to essentially diminish pathogens in poultry. Thusly, this occurrence made noteworthy financial misfortune the grill business. Unmistakably Salmonella nourishment sullying that is related to the utilization of poultry items is viewed as a major issue for the neighborhood poultry industry just as for the customers. Along these lines, It becomes obvious that controlling Salmonella at the homestead and at the handling plant are significant objectives to both the business and the general wellbeing specialists. This control should be possible by using various medicines to diminish the degrees of Salmonella at the ranch level to the most minimal conceivable and apply great practices at the handling plants to forestall the danger of cross defilement during preparing. Medicines, for example, serious avoidance.

Zeolite is a stone that contains normal minerals delivered utilizing aluminum silicate which is hydrated by solvent base metals and fundamental earth. Trademark Zeolite joined wellspring of fluid magma discharge. Geochemists and mineralogists check that zeolites are the aftereffect of cemented volcanoes into volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks, and variable rocks which thusly experience suffering due to the effect of warmth and cold with the objective that zeolite minerals at long last surrounded. These stones are dim to pale blue in shading. Mineralogists express that zeolites contain in excess of 30 common minerals, for example, Natrolite, Thomsonite, Analytes, Hendalites, Clinoptilotites, and Modernities. 

Zeolite properties have been found by examines. As a result, contemplates found that zeolite contained up to 70% of high proportion among silica and aluminum oxides. The study additionally discovered the morphology of the permeable structure on common zeolites that ready to retain and desorb substances. Zeolite additionally has the capacity to particular adsorption of huge cations. This is because of the nearness of the particle size that characterized as solid Coloumb cooperation with the structure of the zeolite. Their physicochemical properties basically rely upon the substance of the zeolitic stage in the stone, for example, cations trade structure and nature of debasements. Regular zeolites are permeable frameworks, the essential porosity of them is dictated by the micropores of gems, and the auxiliary one – by the transitional pores and macropores.

Including zeolite in the oven feed will influence the commonness of Salmonella on the outside body and in the ceca at various ages throughout the winter season. The outcome found that including all the various degrees of zeolite in the oven feed altogether (p<0.05) decreased Salmonella defilement on the outside body at 21 and 35 days old enough and numerical, yet not noteworthy decrease (p>0.05) at day 7. It is imperative to take note of that despite the fact that the Salmonella sullying on the outside body of the benchmark group at various ages was more in the mid year than in winter, the pollution decrease because of the medicines was more articulated in the winter than in the late spring season. This could be because of the way that degrees of dampness and smelling salts in the oven houses are more in the winter season than in the late spring season. It has been accounted for that alkali levels in the oven house are higher throughout the winter season than throughout the late spring season which could prompt an expansion in Salmonella sullying.


Zeolite as Pig Feed Additive

Pigs are one of the animals with great potential to be developed in an effort to meet the need for meat. This is supported by its nature which has growth and breeding that is fast, prolific, efficient in converting feed into meat and has meat with a high percentage of carcasses. Consumers will usually pay attention to some of the characteristics that are used as a handle in choosing quality pork, among others: color, tenderness, taste, and taste after cooking. Other characteristics that also determine the quality of pork are intramuscular fat, cooking losses, fluid retention, and meat pH.

Efforts to improve the quality of pork can not be separated from the rations given to livestock during its growing period. A good ration must contain nutrients needed for growth. Protein is the most essential nutrient for pig growth. Ingredients, especially rations which are commonly used as a source of protein, are relatively expensive, in addition to the cost of ration, it is also the biggest cost in the pig farm business, reaching 60% to 80% of the total production cost. Providing cheap rations with low quality, an imbalance in the amount of ration nutrition provided, as well as the limitation of their provision is often done to reduce these costs, which of course this situation will affect the quality of meat produced.

Feed or food for livestock is one important factor in the business of pigs. Because 60% of the total cost is spent on the needs of pigs (seeds), and 80% is for fattening pigs. Therefore, one thing to note here is that although pigs are naturally classified as animals that eat very greedy, and like to eat anything, but they need to be given food with the correct calculation. Because, in addition to pigs having a lot of food and greed, the conversion to food is very good, so if the maintenance is good, the growth rate will be good too.


The problem faced is the amount of expenditure for the cost of feed, per day. The feed given is in the form of corn, rice bran, tofu pulp, and cassava. Feed is given 2 times a day, ie morning and evening. feed for 1 pig weaned as much as 4-5 buckets, while for seedlings given 1 bucket. Pigs are also given vitamin B-complex, medoxy, verbex, which aims to treat and prevent itching. Feeding pigs in large quantities is not a guarantee that pigs will develop properly, as expected, if the quality of food provided does not meet the nutritional requirements of pigs. The provision of rations is factors that absolutely cannot be ruled out.

Pigs in their growth, breeding, fattening and health require certain substances, which when they are deficient, pigs will develop differentiation disease. Period starter (0-11 weeks), protein 20-22% and sebaknya given milk milk and ground corn. Grower period (10 – 24 weeks), 17% protein plus fresh forages, minerals and vitamins. Fattening (up to 10 months), 14% protein and quality feed so that it can reach weight + 100 kg. Seedlings, with 14% protein, foods high in fiber, and fresh forage but do not need to cook rations. Food is given 2-3 times a day and does not absolutely have to be cooked.

Because vitamin substances in a cooked food mixture will be damaged or lost, but there are also things that need to be cooked like cassava, taro leaves and soybeans because they contain toxins, can cause itching, it contains anti-metabolic substances. Pigs, besides needing food, also need clean drinking water every day and are provided unlimitedly in a cage so pigs can drink according to their needs.

The search for alternative feed ingredients is carried out by considering the availability, quality and price, as well as not competing human needs, as well as a source of minerals and protein. In addition, the composition of the ration composition with the right level and as optimal as possible must be done, so that a good and balanced ration is obtained in accordance with the needs of livestock. Zeolites are mining commodities that can be used as a source of minerals in the ration. This mineral is quite abundant in Indonesia and has a characteristic that is having high absorption and cation exchange capacity. Zeolites are not a single mineral consisting of several types. The zeolite mineral content is calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, strontium and barium. In general, zeolite minerals are aluminosilicate hydrate compounds with alkali metals.

The ion exchange and absorption ability of zeolites can be used to increase the efficiency of nitrogen use in feed, reduce intestinal diseases in piglets and ruminants, control water and ammonia content in livestock manure, filter wastewater from the hatchery industry, and to reduce nitrogen content in feeding. livestock and livestock industry wastewater. Giving zeolite in pig rations resulted in increased body weight and efficiency of the use of higher feed, as well as lower protein content of feces, compared to pigs without zeolite administration.

Zeolite Application in Poultry Production

Poultry farming is one of agriculture sector that produce poultry product, such as eggs and meats. The product is very important, because it used as cooking material or even for industrial material. Lot of people consumed poultry product every day. Poultry farming, raising of winged animals locally or economically, fundamentally for meat and eggs yet additionally for quills. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of essential significance, while guinea fowl and squabs (youthful pigeons) are mainly of neighborhood intrigue. This article treats the standards and practices of poultry cultivating. For a conversation of the nourishment worth and handling of poultry items, see egg and poultry preparing.

Business poultry taking care of is an exceptionally consummated science that guarantees the most extreme admission of vitality for development and fat production. High-caliber and even protein sources produce the most extreme measure of muscle, organ, skin, and quill development. The fundamental minerals produce bones and eggs, with around 3 to 4 percent of the live fowl being made out of minerals and 10 percent of the egg. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, potassium, sulfur, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, magnesium, and zinc are completely required. Nutrients A, C, D, E, and K and the entirety of the B nutrients are likewise required. Anti-infection agents are generally used to invigorate craving, control destructive microscopic organisms, and forestall illness. For chickens, current apportions produce about 0.5 kg (1 pound) of the grill on about 0.9 kg (2 pounds) of feed and twelve eggs from 2 kg (4.5 pounds) of feed.


Large scale production of chicken meat and eggs started in the mid-twentieth century, yet by the center of that century meat production had exceeded egg production as a specific industry. The market for chicken meat has developed drastically from that point forward, with overall fares arriving at almost 12.5 million metric tons (about 13.8 million tons) by the mid-21st century. 

The first audit on the impact of Zeolites on animal production (cultivating) was introduced by Mumpton and Fishman (1984). During the 1980s there were in excess of 60 articles managing zeolites application on poultry production, and there was a lot of energy for this new feed fixing. Evans (1989) managed in extraordinary profundity and detail with almost all the articles managing the impact of zeolites on poultry production and execution. By 1990 it gave the idea that zeolite was not as promising as it at first showed up, because of the revelation of its job in aflatoxicosis.

The cation exchangeability of zeolite may decrease the lethality brought about by the ingestion of overwhelming metals (Lake et al., 1995; Bartko et al., 1995). Strikingly, zeolite could itself contain a wellspring of lethality. It is conceivable that when zeolite separates in proventriculus or gizzard, aluminum is filtered out. This has not generally been borne out in look into findings. Then again, the elevated level of aluminum, particularly inside characteristic zeolite (the option of 1% zeolite to the eating regimen will include 0.15% aluminum) in itself could be poisonous. What’s more, Elliot and Edwards (1991) demonstrated that aluminum contained inside manufactured zeolite particles might be solvent in the gastrointestinal tract of laying hen and grill chickens, diminishing the usage of phosphorous.

Consideration levels of zeolite can differ from 1% to 10%. While ordinary suggested levels for engineered zeolite is 1%, the normal zeolite prescribed levels are accounted for to be as high as 10%. These distinctions in portion reflect the significant substance and physical attributes among normal and manufactured zeolite and the debasement level of characteristic zeolites. Khademi (2003) detailed that up to 7% incorporation of normal zeolite improved both nourishment utilization and execution while over this level, regular zeolite has an unfavorable impact. Ingram et al. (1988) detailed that flying creatures exposed to warm pressure benefited from the consideration of 1.5% engineered zeolite in the eating routine. The consideration of 1.5% manufactured zeolite for fowls confronting heat pressure is accounted for to have a beneficial impact on exhibitions.

Water utilization, just as dampness substance of litter, were decreased when zeolite was remembered for the eating routine of grill chickens. The best credit given to zeolite is its beneficial impact on feed efficiency in the two layers and oven chickens. Zeolites may encourage blood seepage from villi, and increment the action of brush fringe cells, which thus could improve assimilation and retention of supplements.

Thank you for reading our article about Zeolite in poultry. Keep in touch with Nusagri to get information about zeolite minerals. Nusagri have been exported tons of natural zeolite overseas. Check our website to order natural zeolite.

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